In the portfolio of electricity storage solutions for stationary applications, we limit us in this overview to the main feasible electro-chemical batteries such as:

Can be mainly divided into ‘flooded’ and ‘valve-regulated’ batteries
– FLA or ‘flooded lead-acid batteries’, sometimes also called ‘open-vented’. ‘OPsV-called’ batteries belong to this category. These type of batteries are still mostly used, require maintenance but still have good performance characteristics and are the cheapest of all type of batteries.
– VRLA or ‘valve-regulated lead-acid’ batteries. This category can be further divided into:
* flat plate VRLA of which there are two types: gel and AGM or ‘Absorbed Glass Mat’ batteries
* tubular plate build up, also called OPzV.
These type of batteries are maintenance free, are flexible and can be used in multiple applications, while maintaining a good performance.
More information on the main differences and key characteristics  are available in the link: ‘comparing deep-cycle flooded batteries to VRLA batteries


Lithium Ion based
– LiFePO4
Among the many members of the big Li-Ion family these ‘LFP’ batteries are the best suited for deep-cycle applications for renewable energy.

– Vanadium redox-flow
These are very well suited for long term energy storage. So for long durations of power backup or for long term power shifting. While above systems are mainly suited for intra- or inter-day day power shifting, redox-flow systems can be used for week up to months of power shifting.

Depending on the project specific characteristics, an installation that contains a mix of above battery types could be possible.
Besides the many basic specifications of batteries, especially the operational life time, efficiency and price are playing a key role in the cost per kWh of electricity generated out of battery storage.